Dr. Hughes has a distinguished career focusing on women’s mental health and substance use (total funding exceeding $20 million USD). She is well known for her ground breaking work in the 1980s related to chemically dependent nurses, and is a nationally and internationally recognized expert in the area of alcohol use among sexual minority (lesbian and bisexual) women. Her pioneering studies on the predictors and consequences of alcohol use among sexual minority women have received continuous funding since 1999 from the U.S. National Institutes of Health and other sources and have grown into the world’s longest running longitudinal study of alcohol use and health among sexual minority women. She has served as Co-Investigator on numerous other funded studies with researchers from major U.S. and Australian institutions, including the University of Melbourne and Deakin University. Dr. Hughes holds Honorary Professor appointments at the University of Technology-Sydney and Deakin University (Australia), Oxford Brookes University (Oxford, England) and the University of Pennsylvania.
Dr. Hughes supervised masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students/fellows, and international visiting scholars. Most recently she taught Global Health Nursing for UIC and international undergraduate students. Prior to assuming her previous administrative role as Head of the Department Health Systems Science, she taught graduate core courses in the UIC Interdisciplinary Women’s Health Concentration. She participated in more than a dozen training grants and served as mentor or consultant to numerous researchers at UIC, throughout the US, and in Canada, England, India, Japan, Thailand, Rwanda, South Africa, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand.
Hughes served as primary or national mentor for three Robert Wood Johnson Faculty Nurse Scholars. In addition, she was co-investigator/co-director of the UIC Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health (BIRCWH), NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health, K12 HD055892, 2007-2017 and was part of the leadership team for a National Institutes of Health and Fogarty International Center, D43 (PI, S. Weine). This project focused on building research capacity in low- and middle-income countries concerning the major global health problem of migration-related non-communicable diseases.
The impact of Dr. Hughes’ research is evident in the myriad awards she has received from diverse organizations on local, national, and international levels.
- 2017 Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice Recognition Award for contributions in behavioral health that create humane social justice policy.
- 2016 Named Nursing Collegiate Professor, UIC College of Nursing
- 2016 GLMA: Health Professionals Advancing LGBT Equality Achievement Award for exemplary commitment to improving the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
- 2016 GLMA Nursing Section Award of Excellence
- 2015-18 University Scholar, University of Illinois
- 2015 Inducted into the Institute of Medicine-Chicago
- 2015 Inducted into the International Nurse Researcher Hall of Fame, Sigma Theta Tau International (awarded to fewer than 100 nurses worldwide)
- 2014 Inaugural Distinguished Researcher Award, University of Illinois College of Nursing
- 2014 Betty Ford Award (National), Association of Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse
- 2014 Distinguished Contribution Award, Midwest Nursing Research Society
- 2011 Inducted into University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, Hall of Fame
- 2010 Outstanding Alumni Award. One of 50 outstanding alumni honored at the 50th anniversary celebration of the University of Kentucky College of Nursing
- 2010 Fellow, Leadership for Academic Nursing, American Association of Colleges of Nursing
- 2009 Nursing Leadership Recognition Award, Sigma Theta Tau (Alpha Lambda)
- 2008 Honorary Professorial Fellow, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
- 2006 Oak Park Area Lesbian and Gay Association, OPAL Award (for contributions to LGBT health)
- 2003 Inducted into Chicago Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame, Chicago Commission on Human Relations
- 2003 Community Leadership Award, Chicago Lesbian Community Cancer Project
- 2002 Research Award, Sigma Theta Tau International (Alpha Lambda Chapter)
- 2001 Fellow, American Academy of Nursing
- 1998 Research Award, Outstanding Contributions to Addictions Research, National Nurses Society on Addictions
- 1996 Graduate Faculty Excellence in Teaching Award, UIC Graduate Student Organization
- 1995 Outstanding Alumnus, College of Allied Health and Nursing, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, Kentucky
- 1992 Teaching Award (Integration of substance abuse into undergraduate nursing curriculum), UIC, HIGH 5 Project (Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education [FIPSE])
- 1991 Research Award (Outstanding contributions to addictions research), Illinois Nurses Society on Addictions
- 1990 Dean’s Award, outstanding PhD graduate, UIC College of Nursing. Selected on the basis of scholarship, research, and scholarly productivity
- 1989 American Journal of Nursing Book of the Year Award for Addiction in the Nursing Profession: Approaches to Intervention and Recovery (Co-edited with M. Haack)
Dr. Hughes has published more than 160 peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters and other scholarly papers—as well as presented scores of scientific papers, workshops and invited addresses at national and international research conferences.
Google Scholar H index=39; i10 index=81; Scopus H index=29; Peer-reviewed1, Data-based2
Matthews, A.K., Cho, Y., Hughes, T.L., Wilsnack, S.C., Aranda, F. & Johnson, T.P. (2017). Victimization in adulthood mediates the relationship between childhood victimization and smoking in heterosexual and sexual minority women. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 4, 1, 17-23. 1,2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx052. PMID: 28113006
Matthews, A.K., Steffen, A., Hughes, T.L., Aranda, F., Martin, K. (2017). Demographic, healthcare, and contextual factors associated with smoking status among sexual-minority women. LGBT Health, 4(1), 17-23. 1,2 doi:10.1089/lgbt.2016.0039.
Rhew, I., Stappenbeck, C.A., Bedard-Gilligan, M., Hughes, T.L. & Kaysen, D. (2017, March. Epub ahead of print). Effects of sexual assault on alcohol use and consequences among young adult sexual minority women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1,2 doi: 10.1037/ccp0000202.
Riley, B., Hughes, T.L., Wilsnack, S.C., Johnson, T.P., Benson, P., & Aranda, F. (2017). Validating a hazardous drinking index in a sample of sexual minority women: Reliability, validity and predictive accuracy. Substance Use & Misuse, 52(1), 43-51.1,2 doi: 10.1080/10826084.2016.1214150. PMID: 27661289.
Steele, S.M., Everett, B.G., & Hughes, T.L. (2017). Influence of perceived femininity, masculinity, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on intimate partner violence among sexual-minority women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17-23. 1,2 doi: 10.1177/0886260516683176.
Yingling, C., Colter, K. & Hughes, T.L. (2017). Building nurses’ capacity to address health inequities: Incorporating LGBT health content in a family nurse practitioner program. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 38(1), 42–49.
Kim, N., Hughes, T.L., Park, C., Quinn, L., & Kong, D. (2016). Altered autonomic functions and distressed personality traits in male adolescents with internet gaming addiction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 19(11): 667-673. 1,2 doi:10.1089/cyber.2016.0282. PMID: 27831751.
Everett, B., Hatzenbuehler, M. & Hughes, T.L. (2016). The impact of civil union legislation on minority stress, depression, and hazardous drinking in a diverse sample of sexual-minority women: A quasi-natural experiment. Social Science & Medicine, 169, 180-190. 1,2 doi: 0.1016/j.socscimed.2016.09.036.
Dirkes, J., Hughes, T.L., Johnson, T.P., Ramirez-Valles, J., Bostwick, W.B., & Kuhns, L. (2016). Sexual identity development: Relationship to lifetime suicidal ideation in sexual minority women. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25: 3545-3556.1,2 doi: 10.1111/jocn.13313.
Everett, B., *Talley, A.E., Hughes, T.L., Wilsnack, S.C., & Johnson, T.P. (2016). Sexual identity mobility and psychological distress: A longitudinal analysis of moderating factors among sexual minority women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(7), 1731-44.1,2 doi:10.1007/s10508-016-0755-x
Jeong, Y.M., *Veldhuis, C., Aranda, F., & Hughes, T.L. (2016). Racial/ethnic differences in unmet needs for mental health and substance use treatment in a community-based sample of sexual minority women. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25(23-24), 3557-3569. 1,2 doi: 10.1111/jocn.13477. PMID: 27461857.
Talley, A., Grimaldo, G., Wilsnack, S.C., Hughes, T.L, & Kristjanson, A. (2016). Childhood victimization, internalizing symptoms and substance use among women who identify as mostly heterosexual. LGBT Health, 3(4), 1-9.1,2 doi: 10.1089/lgbt.2015.0073. PMID: 27269733.
Mueller, A. & Hughes, T.L. (2016). Making the invisible visible: A systematic review of research on sexual minority women’s health in Southern Africa. BMC Public Health, 16, 307 1,2 doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2980-6. PMID: 27066890
Everett, B., McCabe, K., Hughes, T.L. (2016). Unintended pregnancy, depression, and hazardous drinking in a community-based sample of sexual minority women. Journal of Women’s Health, 25(9), 904-11.1,2 doi:10.1089/jwh.2015.5290. PMID: 26977978.
Hughes, T.L., Wilsnack, S.C. & Kantor, L. (2016). The influence of gender and sexual orientation on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: Toward a global perspective. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 38(1), 121-132. 1 PMID: 27159819
Kim, N., Hughes, T.L., Park, C., Quinn, L., & Kong, D. (2016). Resting-state peripheral catecholamine and anxiety levels in Korean male adolescents with internet game addiction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(3), 202-208.1,2 doi: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0411. PMID: 26849530
Brysiewicz, P., Hughes, T.L., & McCreary, L.L. (2015). Promoting innovation in global nursing practice. Rwanda Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 2(2), 41-45. 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/rj.v2i2.7F.
McNair, R.P., Pennay, A., Hughes, T.L., Brown, R., Leonard, W., & Lubman, D. (2015). A model for lesbian, bisexual and queer related influences on alcohol consumption and implications for policy and practice. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 18(4):405-421.1,2 doi:10.1080/13691058.2015.1089602. PMID: 26466746.
Brown, R., McNair, R., Szalacha, L., Livingston, T. & Hughes, T.L. (2015). Cancer risk factors, diagnosis and sexual identity in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s Health. Women’s Health Issues, 25(5):509-16 1,2 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2015.04.001. PMID: 26044972.
Hughes, T.L., Wilsnack, S.C., & Kristjanson, A. (2015). Substance use and related problems among U.S. women who identify as mostly heterosexual. BMC Public Health, 15, 803.1,2 doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2143-1. PMID: 26289792
Hughes, T.L. & Sommers, L. (2015). Health disparities among sexual minority women. In women and health: The key for sustainable development. The Lancet, 386(9999), 19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60497-4
Talley, A.E., Aranda, F.A., Hughes, T.L., Everett, B., & Johnson, T. (2015). Longitudinal associations among discordant sexual orientation dimensions and hazardous drinking in a cohort of sexual minority women. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1-21. 1,2 doi: 10.1177/0022146515582099. PMID: 25911224
Bostwick, W.B., Hughes, T.L, & Everett, B. (2015). Health behavior, status and outcomes among a community-based sample of lesbian and bisexual women. LGBT Health, 2(2),121-6 .1,2doi:10.1089/lgbt.2014.0074
Hequembourg, A., Parks, K., Collins, R. L., Hughes, T.L. (2015). Sexual assault risks among gay and bisexual men. Journal of Sex Research, 52(3), 282-295. 1,2 PMCID: PMC4117833
Hughes, T.L. (2015). Developing a research career focusing on a stigmatized and marginalized population: Sexual minority women’s drinking. Substance Abuse, 36, 144-148. 2 doi:10.1080/08897077.2015.1007202
Martin, K., Johnson, T.P. & Hughes, T.L. (2015). Using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit sexual minority women. Survey Practice, 8(2). 1,2 http://surveypractice.org/index.php/SurveyPractice/article/view/273
Aranda, F., Matthews, A.K., Hughes, T.L., Muramatsu, N., Wilsnack, S.C., & Johnson, T.P. (2015). Coming out in color: The effects of level of sexual identity disclosure on depression. Journal of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2, 247-57. 1,2
Anderson, J., Hughes, T.L., Zou, C., Wilsnack, S.C. (2014). Lifetime victimization and physical health outcomes among lesbian and heterosexual women. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101939. 1,2 PMID: 25068978.
Bostwick, W. B., Boyd, C., Hughes, T.L., McCabe, S.E., & West, B. (2014). Discrimination and mental health among lesbian, gay and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(1), 35-45.1,2 doi: 10.1037/h0098851. PMID: 24826824.
Hughes, T.L., Johnson, T.P., Steffen, A., Wilsnack, S.C., & Everett, B. (2014). Lifetime victimization, hazardous drinking and depression among heterosexual and sexual minority women. LGBT Health, 1(3), 1-12. 1,2 doi:10.1089/lgbt.2014.0014.
Talley, A., Hughes, T.L. , Aranda, F., Bickett, M., & Marshal, M. (2014). Exploring the impact of sexual orientation on alcohol-use behaviors in adolescents: Intersections with sex, age and ethnicity. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2), 295-303. 1,2 doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301627. PMID: 24328614.
Alvy, L., Hughes, T.L., Wilsnack, S.C., & Kristjanson, A.F. (2013). Sexual identity group differences in child abuse and neglect. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(10), 2088-21111,2 doi: 10.1177/0886260512471081. PMID: 23345571.
Corte, C., Matthews, A.K, Brown, R. & Hughes, T.L. (2013). Advancing health equity in disparity populations. A focused issue on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 19, 239-240. doi:10.1177/1078390313505767.
Johnson, T.P., Hughes, T.L., Cho, Y., Wilsnack, S.C., Aranda, F., & Szalacha, L. (2013). Hazardous drinking, depression and anxiety among sexual minority women: Self-medication or impaired functioning? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs,74(4), 565-575.1,2 PMID: 23739020.
Marshal, M.P., Dermot, S.S., Cheong, J.W., Burton, C.M., Friedman, M.S., Aranda, F., & Hughes, T.L. (2013). Trajectories of depressive symptoms and suicidality among heterosexual and sexual minority youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 1243-1256. 1,2 doi:10.1007/s10964-013-9970-0. PMID: 23784511.
Matthews, A.K., Young, C., Hughes, T.L., Wilsnack, S.C., & Johnson, T.P. (2013). The influence of childhood physical abuse on adult health status in sexual minority women: The mediating role of smoking. Women’s Health Issues, 23(2), 95-102.1,2 doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2012.11.007. PMID: 23415321.
Wilsnack, S.C., Kristjanson, A.F., Hughes, T.L., & Benson, P.W. (2012). Characteristics of childhood sexual abuse in lesbian and heterosexual women. Child Abuse and Neglect, 36(3), 260-265.1,2 doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.10.008. PMID: 22425697.
McCabe, S.E., Hughes, T.L., Bostwick, W.B. & Morales, M., & Boyd, C. (2011). Measurement of sexual identity in surveys: Implications for substance abuse research. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 649-657. 1,2 doi: 10.1007/s10508-011-9768-7. PMID: 21573706.
Bloomfield, K., Wicki, M., Wilsnack, S.C., Hughes, T.L., & Geml, G. (2011). International differences in alcohol use according to sexual orientation. Substance Abuse, 32, 210-219.1,2 doi: 10.1080/08897077.2011.598404. PMID: 22014251
Hughes, T.L. (2011). Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 29, 403-435.1 PMID: 16353369.
McNair, R. P., Szalacha, L.A., & Hughes, T.L. (2011). Health status, health services use, and satisfaction according to sexual identity of young Australian women. Women’s Health Issues, 21, 40-47.1,2 PMID: 21185989.
Bostwick, W.B., Boyd, C.J., Hughes, T.L., & McCabe, S.E. (2010). Dimensions of sexual orientation and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 468-475.1,2 PMCID: PMC2820045.
Hughes, T.L., McCabe, S.E., Wilsnack, S.C., Boyd, C., & West, B.T. (2010). Victimization and substance use disorders in a national sample of heterosexual and sexual minority women and men. Addiction, 105, 2130-2140.1,2 PMCID: PMC3006226.
Hughes, T.L., Szalacha, L.A. & McNair, R.P. (2010). Substance use and mental health disparities: Comparisons across sexual identity groups in a national sample of young Australian women. Social Science & Medicine, 71, 824-831.1,2 PMID: 20579794.
McCabe, S.E., Bostwick, W.B., Hughes, T.L., West, B.T., & Boyd, C.J. (2010). The relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders among lesbian, gay and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1946-1952.1,2 PMID: 20075317.
McCabe, S.E., Hughes, T.L., Bostwick, W.B., West, B.T., & Boyd, C.J. (2009). Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States. Addiction, 14, 1333-1345.1,2 PMCID: PMC2975030.
Hughes, T.L., Johnson, T.P., & Matthews, A. (2008). Sexual orientation and smoking: Results from the Multi-Site Women’s Health Study. Substance Use & Misuse, 43(8-9), 1218-1239.1,2 PMCID: PMC2882163.
Wilsnack, S.C., Hughes, T.L., Johnson, T.P., Bostwick, W.B., Szalacha, L.A., Benson, P., Aranda, F., & Kinnison, K.E. (2008). Drinking and drinking-related problems among heterosexual and sexual minority women. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 129-139.1,2 PMID:18080073.
Aaron, D.J. & Hughes, T.L. (2007). Association of childhood sexual abuse to obesity in a community sample of lesbians. Obesity, 15, 1023-1028.1,2 PMID: 17426338.
Hughes, T.L., Johnson, T.P., Wilsnack, S.C., & Szalacha, L. (2007). Childhood risk factors for alcohol abuse and psychological distress among adult lesbians. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(7), 769-789.1,2 PMCID: PMC2600503.
Hughes, T.L., Wilsnack, S.C., Szalacha, L.A., Johnson, T., Bostwick, W.B., Seymour, R. , Aranda, F., Benson, P., & Kinnison, K.E. (2006). Age and racial/ethnic differences in drinking and drinking-related problems in a community sample of lesbians. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67, 579-590.1,2 PMID: 6736078.
Hughes, T.L. (2005). Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 23, 283-325. PMID: 16353369.
McCabe, S.E., Hughes, T.L., Bostwick, W. & Boyd, C. (2005). Assessment of differences in dimensions of sexual orientation: Implications for substance use research in a college-age population. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66, 620-629. 1,2 PMID: 16331847.
McCabe, S.E., Hughes, T.L., & Boyd, C. (2004). Substance use and misuse: Are bisexual women at greater risk? Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 36(2), 217-225.1,2 PMID: 15369203.
Hughes, T.L. (2003). Lesbians’ drinking patterns: Beyond the data. Substance Use and Misuse, 38, 1739-1758.1,2 PMID: 14582576.
Hughes, T.L., Matthews, A., Razzano, C., & Aranda, F. (2003). Psychological distress in African American lesbian and heterosexual women. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 7(1), 51-68.1,2
McCabe, S.E., Boyd, C.J., Hughes, T.L. & d’Arcy, H. (2003). Sexual identity and substance use among undergraduate students. Substance Abuse, 24(2), 77-91.1,2 PMID: 12766375.
Hughes, T.L., & Eliason, M. (2002). Substance use and abuse in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 22(3), 263-298.1 doi: 10.1023/a:1013669705086
Matthews, A., Hughes, T.L., Razzano, L., Johnson, T., & Cassidy, R. (2002). Prediction of depressive distress in a community sample of women: The role of sexual orientation. American Journal of Public Health, 92(7), 1131-1139.1,2 PMID: 12084697.
Hughes, T.L., Johnson, T., & Wilsnack, S.C. (2001). Sexual assault and alcohol abuse: A comparison of lesbians and heterosexual women. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13, 515-532.1,2 PMID: 11775080.
Nawyn, S., Richman, J., Rospenda, K., & Hughes, T.L. (2000). Sexual Identity and alcohol-related outcomes: Contributions of workplace harassment. Journal of Substance Abuse, 11, 289-304.1,2 PMID:11026127.
Hughes, T.L. & Wilsnack, S.C. (1997). Use of alcohol among lesbians: Research and clinical implications. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67(1), 20-36.1 PMID:9034019
Hughes, T.L. & Wilsnack, S. (1994). Research on lesbians and alcohol: Gaps and implications. Alcohol Health and Research World, 18(3), 202-205.1
NCBI My Bibliography link:
Recent Research Funding
2016-2021 Impact of supportive policies on minority stress, drinking and health among women (3R01 AA013328-10; PI: T. Hughes) National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. $3,341,998 (Total costs).
2015-2016 Impact of supportive policies on minority stress, drinking and health among women. Office of Research on Women’s Health, R56 (2R01 AA013328-10; PI: T. Hughes). $247,624 (Total costs).
2015-2017 E-Diaries to assess health effects of microaggressions among bisexual women (PI: Bostwick; Co-I: T. Hughes). National Institute on Minority Health & Health Disparities, R21MD009585, $371,583.
2014-2019 Sexual orientation differences: Prevalence & correlates of substance use & abuse (PIs: Drabble & Trocki, University of San Jose & Alcohol Research Group, Berkeley, Co-PI/Site PI: T. Hughes). National Institute on Drug Abuse, R01DA036606. $2,034,442.
2010-2015 Young sexual minority women and high risk drinking (PI: D. Kaysen, University of Washington, Co-I: T. Hughes). National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, R01AA018292, $2,158,044.
2009-2015 Cumulative stress and hazardous drinking in a community sample of lesbians (PI: T. Hughes). National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2R01AA013328. $2,118,222.
Research Training Grants
2014-2017 Building an effective partnership for innovative nursing education and research to advance public health in India. (PI: T. Hughes). US-India Educational Foundation, Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative. $190,000.
2014-2017 Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program
To address Rwanda’s critical human resource shortage in the health professions this program utilizes the skills and knowledge of US-based faculty in nursing/midwifery and medicine to expand and improve the existing Rwandan health education system with the long-term goal of creating a world-class, sustainable health care system for the country. UIC Project PI
2014-2017 Building research capacity in low- and middle-income countries concerning the major global health problem of migration-related non-communicable diseases. (PI: S. Weine, UIC College of Medicine). National Institutes of Health and Fogarty International Center, D43. Faculty and Member of UIC Leadership Team.
2007–2015 Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health (BIRCWH) (PI: S. Geller, Co-Investigator/Co-Director: T. Hughes). NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health, K12 HD055892-06, $462,959 (Direct costs).
2000–2017 AIDS International Training and Research Program at UIC. (PI: J. Levy, UIC School of Public Health). National Institutes of Health and Fogarty International Center, D43 TW001419. Research Training Faculty.